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What does BPS (bits per second) mean in satellite communications?

The users data rate of a satellite channel is expressed in Bits per second; Bps,
Kilo[Thousand]bits per second; kBps, or Mega[Million]bits per second; Mbps.
The rate of a satellite delivered data channel is measured in sps or symbols per
second, see the table above for a comparison of Bps-to-Sps. An MCPC or Digital Video link would typically run at several Mbps, Video conferencing @ 384kBps, Audio @ 192 – 256 kBps and Data and Voice circuits @ 64kBps [or multiples thereof].


What does BER (bit error rate) mean in satellite communications?

Mathematically this is the probability that a bit sent over the link will be received incorrectly [that a 1 will be read as a 0, for example] or alternatively, the fraction of a large number of transmitted bits that will be received incorrectly. This is expressed as a single number ie. 10 * 10E-4 or 0.0001 .
Physically a bit error occurs because a symbol error has occurred, ie. at some point in the link noise has corrupted the transmitted symbol and the decision circuitry at the receiver cannot identify it correctly. Symbol errors arise from thermal noise, from external interference and from intersymbol interference.


What can millennials expect in the workforce?

One think is totally sure organizations need to adapt and understand what
millennials want in a work environment.
Millennials want to learn and make an new impact to the society, but they don’t want to become part of a hive mind.
While it’s important for an organization to function uniformly and have a common vision, it doesn’t mean employees need to lose their individual identities.


What are the key factors driving the growth of the massive MIMO market?

The key factor driving the growth of the massive MIMO market is the rising
importance of software implementation in a communication network, high signal to noise ratio, and link reliability.
The global massive MIMO market is expected to exhibit significant growth
between 2018 and 2026.
However, delay in the standardization of spectrum allocation is restraining the
growth of the market.


What are the IR Illuminator wavelengths?

IR illuminators work with day/night cameras to provide IR illumination for low light environments and enable you to capture video at night.
IR illuminators are equipped with varying wavelengths—generally from 730 nm to
950 nm. An IR illuminator with a 730 nm wavelength requires a less light sensitive camera and produces a strong, very visible red glow, while an 850 nm wavelength IR illuminator produces a faint visible glow, making it semi-covert. An IR illuminator with a 940 nm wavelength produces a glow that is virtually invisible to the human eye, which makes it an ideal choice for most covert applications. A 940 nm illuminator must be used with a very light sensitive camera with no IR cut filter, or if the camera does have an IR filter, it has to be removed for optimal results.